Yellow fever is an acute hemorrhagic disease caused by a virus from the Flaviviridae family. This disease is transmitted by mosquito bite. It is common in Africa and South America. This rather dangerous disease features with following symptoms high body temperature, nausea and vomiting. The body is prone to bleeding therefore the disease is classified in a group of hemorrhagic fevers. Jaundice may occur as well.
One can be protected from the disease by vaccination. Most people who are travelling to endemic countries need to undergo vaccination before the journey. The measures that are directed to reduction of mosquitoes can be efficient to certain extend. However this highly infective disease has shown the signs or coming back.
Complications of yellow fever do not affect all the infected people. 20-50% of all complicated cases die. The lethal outcome happens within two weeks after the onset of illness.
During the toxic faze of yellow fever apart from ordinary symptoms there are possible complications. They include kidney and liver failureand jaundice. Kidney failure presents with proteinuria. Liver and kidney failure are life threatening as body cannot eliminate toxin substances so they linger within body making harm to all the body organs. Jaundice features with the yellow coloration of the skin and increased levels of bilirubin in blood and urine. In worst cases one develops delirium, convulsions and coma occurs. Increased susceptibility to bleeding is so common for this infectious disease and the most common is gastrointestinal hemorrhage. One may even suffer from blood clot disorders. Bradycardia is one more potential complication.
Still many people tend to recover completely and steadily within months. The recovery time carries additional risk of further complications. One is prone to pneumonia, secondary bacterial infections and blood infections. Jaundice may occur even in recovery period.
Thanks to vaccine the yellow fever and all its possible complications can be evaded. All the people who are travelling to Africa and South America, to be more precise into countries in which disease is present, have to undergo a vaccine shot 10 to 14 day prior the journey. Even when entering the country a person has to show a certificate of immunization. Without it he/ she will not be able to enter the country.
After being vaccinated one is protected for approximately ten years. The side effects of the vaccine are not so severe and they mostly include headache, slight fever, and pain in muscles. Tiredness and pain at the vaccination spot are rather common.
Apart from vaccination appropriate protection from mosquitoes is necessary as well.