The exact cause of the problem is still unknown but many suspect that acombination of the impaired immune system, environmental triggers and hereditaryfactors can be displayed as culprit. This autoimmune disease affects the immunesystem and the immune cells seek and destroy the myelin sheaths, which are responsible for insulating neurons to the spinal cord and the brain. It isalso responsible for preventing a short circuit of the cells. When thecommunication between the body and the brain is disrupted, multiple sclerosisis created. The next step is the development of the plaques. Since they do notfollow any pattern of creation, the exact development of the problem cannot bedetermined.
The problem called multiple sclerosis affects the spinal cord andthe brain. The problem in question is created when mentioned sheaths getinflamed or damaged. Since they are responsible for transmitting the nerveimpulses, this can lead to problems associated with sending impulses. It alsocreates sclerosis, which are scaring areas, while the multiple sclerosis plaqueis the area of scaring and myelin damage. Many problems are created when thenerve impulses are improperly transmitted.
They mostly cause relapses, or more precisely episodes during which the problems getworse, and remissions, which are periods when they recede. Mostly this problemis developed very steady, while longer problems, lasting few decades, can showcertain steps in development.It is known that T cells are important in the creation of multiple sclerosis.They come as self and non-self. When someone has multiple sclerosis, thementioned cells perceive central nervous system parts as foreign and they usually attract the myelin, which is important in theconduction of nerves. When multiple sclerosis is created, the blood brainbarrier breaks down, which causes improper functioning of the immune systemand inflammation. Eventually, the demyelination occurs, which is theelimination of the myelin. There is a process called remyelination, which isbasically a repair process. There can be some repair when the brain sees adamage done.
Another cause of this problem is lesions in the spinal cord andthe brain.The genetics factors contribute to the development of the problem. If a personsuffers from multiple sclerosis, there are 1:3 chances it will also attack afamily member. This can also be explained due to genetics, which we can see have avery important part in the multiple sclerosis condition. Also, another factoris the environment. Some studies show that this problem may be more common in north Europe. It looks like the environmental factor influenceduring the early life, since a study showed that moving into another locationdoes not affect the individuals. Some say that slow viruses cause autoimmuneconditions, such as multiple sclerosis. There is no explanation how anautoimmune disease can be caused by the virus. One theory states that the damage of themyelin comes from the fighting of the immune system with a virus. Other theorystates that immune system confuses myelin with a viral protein, with which itconnected earlier. And because of it, it destroys them.