The exact cause of the problem is still unknown but many suspect that a combination of the impaired immune system, environmental triggers and hereditary factors can be displayed as culprit. This autoimmune disease affects the immune system and the immune cells seek and destroy the myelin sheaths, which are responsible for insulating neurons to the spinal cord and the brain. It is also responsible for preventing a short circuit of the cells. When the communication between the body and the brain is disrupted, multiple sclerosis is created. The next step is the development of the plaques. Since they do not follow any pattern of creation, the exact development of the problem cannot be determined.
The problem called multiple sclerosis affects the spinal cord and the brain. The problem in question is created when mentioned sheaths get inflamed or damaged. Since they are responsible for transmitting the nerve impulses, this can lead to problems associated with sending impulses. It also creates sclerosis, which are scaring areas, while the multiple sclerosis plaque is the area of scaring and myelin damage. Many problems are created when the nerve impulses are improperly transmitted.
They mostly cause relapses, or more precisely episodes during which the problems get worse, and remissions, which are periods when they recede. Mostly this problem is developed very steady, while longer problems, lasting few decades, can show certain steps in development. It is known that T cells are important in the creation of multiple sclerosis. They come as self and non-self. When someone has multiple sclerosis, the mentioned cells perceive central nervous system parts as foreign and they usually attract the myelin, which is important in the conduction of nerves. When multiple sclerosis is created, the blood brain barrier breaks down, which causes improper functioning of the immune system and inflammation. Eventually, the demyelination occurs, which is the elimination of the myelin. There is a process called remyelination, which is basically a repair process. There can be some repair when the brain sees a damage done.
Another cause of this problem is lesions in the spinal cord and the brain. The genetics factors contribute to the development of the problem. If a person suffers from multiple sclerosis, there are 1:3 chances it will also attack a family member. This can also be explained due to genetics, which we can see have a very important part in the multiple sclerosis condition. Also, another factor is the environment. Some studies show that this problem may be more common in north Europe. It looks like the environmental factor influence during the early life, since a study showed that moving into another location does not affect the individuals. Some say that slow viruses cause autoimmune conditions, such as multiple sclerosis. There is no explanation how an autoimmune disease can be caused by the virus. One theory states that the damage of the myelin comes from the fighting of the immune system with a virus. Other theory states that immune system confuses myelin with a viral protein, with which it connected earlier. And because of it, it destroys them.