There are many proteins in the human body and one of the water-soluble proteins is albumin. Of all the proteins found in blood plasma, it is estimated that albumin comprises 60% of them.
It is considered that the normal albumin levels in adults range from 3.5 to 5 grams per deciliter, while in children who are younger than three years, the normal albumin value is between 2.5 and 5.5 grams per deciliter. The organ responsible for the production of this protein is the liver.
Hypoalbuminemia and hyperalbuminemia
Hypoalbuminemia is the medical term for the condition which is marked by low levels of albumin and which usually indicates that the person might suffer from a liver disease or nephrotic syndrome. On the other side, there is also hyperalbuminemia, which is the medical term for high levels of albumin. This condition is typically induced by vitamin A insufficiency and dehydration.
Significance of serum albumin
Albumin, also called serum albumin, is very important since it maintains the blood volume. This protein assists in maintaining the oncotic or colloid osmotic pressure, which is a kind of osmotic pressure that the proteins make in the blood plasma. The oncotic or colloid osmotic pressure is vital since it enables pulling the water into the capillaries. Otherwise, when this pressure is low, the water or fluids leak from the capillaries and fluids build up in the tissues, thus causing edema.
Since albumin is the protein which is essential for our body, low amounts of this protein are very likely to cause certain problems. Therefore, albumin infusion is necessary in the treatment of certain medical conditions. Albumin infusion is actually intravenous administration of this protein, which is carried out in order to treat certain health issues.
Hypovolemia or hypovolemic shock is a medical condition marked by a considerable drop in the blood volume or blood plasma. Since albumin maintains the blood volume, albumin infusion is required when this condition is in question. Furthermore, albumin infusion is also necessary when one suffers from hypoalbuminemia. This disorder usually occurs due to burns, pancreatitis, hemorrhage, and liver problems. In most cases, people who suffer from nephrosis or nephrotic syndrome and have edema usually require albumin infusion.
There are also cases in which albumin infusion is necessary for maintaining the normal systolic blood pressure. Furthermore, cardiopulmonary bypass surgery sometimes requires infusion of this protein.