The horrific procedures are done without medical training, without sterilization and without anaesthesia. The barbaric procedure can lead to serious health consequences, and one of them is infertility. The FGM can cause obstruction of the flow of urine and menstrual blood. It can cause serious health consequences such as tumors, abscesses, cysts, HIV, hepatitis etc. Sexual dysfunction is the long term effect, but unfortunately not the only one. Sexual dysfunction is often accompanied by depression, sometimes even sterility. Urinary tract infections and various gynecological and obstetric problems are a common problem in women who have been mutilated. Some might say this is not of our business, that we don't understand the culture and it is not of our business what is going on behind the closed doors.
Some might even defend the practice to be a representative of passage and the transition into womanhood. We must be aware that practice like this reinforces negative stereotypes. It makes women more dependent on men. Although male circumcision cannot fairly be compared to FGM in which there are no health benefits occurring from FGM and actually serious health risks, I feel the same about mutilation of boys and male babies. They are being helplessly forced into having parts of their genitalia cut off.