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Back pain is one most frequent complaints. In the US, acute pain or lumbago is the fifth most common reason for doctor visits. Most of adult complaints about back pain occur in a certain period of life. The human spine is a complex network of nerves, muscles, ligaments, joints that are interconnected and any dysfunction can produce pain. Large nerves from the spine and further to legs and arms can radiate to the extremities with pain. The pain can be a neck pain, lower back and upper back pain or tailbone pain. It may be a chronic pain, constant or intermittent, also a dull pain, or a sharp pain and burning pain.

Before a doctor decides to do surgery for back pain, it is recommended to first try all other treatments. There are 3 main categories of surgery: a deformity correction, nerve decompression and fusion of bony segments. Correction of deformities is a surgery of congenital deformities that might be caused by fractures, where it is necessary to remove bony fragments. A nerve decompression is done to older people with spinal conditions, and are irritating nerves or doing any other damage. The procedure is called spinal stenosis and means narrowing of the spinal canal which can compress blood supply. Fusion of bony segments is a spinal fusion of two or more fragments of bones, by fusing it together in metalwork, to gain stability to the spine and ease the pain.

There are various types of procedures;

Vertebroplasty is a stabilization of spine. A hard substance gets to be injected in a crumbling bone, a crumbling bone is a condition caused by osteoporosis. It treats fractures that are appearing and is a new procedure to be done. Surgery is the last option for treatment of back pain because there is no guarantee for success. Surgery may be performed after trying of all other possible treatments. Discetomy works on intervertebral discs that can tear off. The surgery includes entire removal or partial removal of the discs and with improving this blood supply, the pain stops. A spinal fusion is the removal of a whole vertebral disc, and if it is a spinal fracture it can develop deformity. A laminectomy ease a pressure on a spinal cord and nerves by removing an extra lamina to provide more space for the nerves to breathe.

Removal of a tumor operation, which is done in cases of benign growths, in order to prevent the growth and pressure coming from the nerves. With a malignant tumor, the surgery decreases the spreading of the malignant anatomical parts. The doctor directs the patient to Oncology and Radiology Department.

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