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Shoulder structures and functions

The shoulder joint contains three bones and those are thecollarbone, shoulder blade and the upper arm bone. The movement of the shoulderis made possible by two joints which are the acromioclavicular joint and theglenohumeral joint. The first one is located between the clavicle and theacromion, while the other one is actually the ball and socket unit which makesit possible to rotate the arm and hinge it out and up away from one’s body. Allthe bones contained in the shoulder are held together by various ligaments,tendons and muscles. Ligaments attach them to one another and provide them withstability. Tendons are cords of tough tissues and they are in charge ofattaching the muscles to the bones. The rotator cuff is a tendon structurewhich is in charge of holding the ball at the top of the socket and providingthe shoulder with essential strength and mobility. Bursae are in charge ofproviding the smooth gliding between the tendons, muscles and the bones.

Signs and diagnosis of different problems

One of the most common medical problems related to theshoulder is dislocation. It is the most commonly dislocated joint in the humanbody. It is commonly triggered by a backward pull on the arm. When this occursfrequently, it is medicinally referred to as shoulder instability. The shouldercan dislocate downward, backward or forward. It is described by painfulsensations, muscle spasms, bruising, weakness, numbness and swelling .Diagnosisinvolves physical examination and X-rays. Shoulder separation occurs when theligaments that hold the AC joint become torn so the clavicle tends to slip outof its place. Various injuries are commonly held responsible for this type ofmedical condition, which is usually characterized by painful sensations andtenderness. The X-ray scan is required in most cases. Another shoulder relatedmedical problem is sternoclavicular separation. It is usually triggered by anaccident and it involves the separation of the sternum from the clavicle at thesternoclavicular joint. The process of diagnosis requires X-ray and CT scans tobe performed. Rotator cuff tears, impingement syndrome, bursitis and tendinitisare closely related and sometimes they accompany one another. All theseconditions commonly involve inflammatory conditions of certain parts of theshoulder such as the bursa and tendons. All of them include difficultysleeping, painful sensations and discomfort. The process of diagnosis for allthese medical conditions includes X-ray and ultrasound scans. Slap lesion is whenthe labrum gets delaminated from glenoid and results in instability. It ischaracterized by trouble sleeping, weakness, and deep ache. Clinical examscombined with MRI scans are required in the process of diagnosis. Differenttypes of fractures may also occur, mostly due to injuries and accidents. Thehumerus, the scapula and the clavicle may get affected by fractures. Mostfractures are associated with severe pain, bruising and redness of the skin.X-rays are commonly required. Arthritis of the shoulder involves the rubbing ofthe bones against each other. Various possible causes include infections,inflammatory conditions, surgeries and injuries. Osteocylis of the AC jointincludes the wearing of the small disk of cartilage, and it can easily becharacterized by substantial amounts of painful sensations. X-ray scans andcrossover arm tests often need to be performed for a proper diagnosis of thismedical condition.

Treatment options for common shoulder problems

Dislocation requires manipulation and reduction in which thehead of the humerus gets back into the joint socket. This is commonly followedby an X-ray scan and immobilization of the arm in a sling. Resting and icepacks are mandatory. Once all thepainful sensations are gone, the patient needs to enter a rehabilitationprogram. Arthroscopic surgery may be required in some more severe cases ofdislocation. Shoulder separation treatment usually involves resting a lot andwearing a sling. Ice packs may be helpful in relieving swelling and painfulsensations. The treatment options for sternoclavicular separation include asling, non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs, icing and plenty of rest. Onlythe severe cases of this medical condition need to be treated by a surgicalintervention. Rotator cuff tears and similar conditions need to be treated withanti inflammatory medicaments and corticosteroids. Some cases may only berelieved by performing a surgery. Slap lesions are very hard to recover fullywithout any surgical interventions, so they remain the best treatment option.Fractures require placing the bones in their natural positions and wearing astrap and a sling. Some cases of fractures may require slight surgicalinterventions. Arthritis of the shoulder is commonly treated with mildanalgesics and a carefully planned regime of gentle exercises. Ice or moistheat may also be of great help. Shoulder replacement surgery may be required insome cases. The treatment options are quite similar for all cases of osteolysisof the AC joint.

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