We will give a list of organs in this system and talk about them more in detail, but we have to say a few words about the endocrine system itself. It is responsible for the hormone secretion, because endocrine glands are responsible for manufacturing the chemicals called hormones, which are crucial for the proper functioning of the body since they are responsible for proper functioning of the metabolism, reproductive processes, organ functioning, mood regulation, and many others. The system we are talking about sends the hormones to the cells in the human body by the bloodstream.
Types of Organs in the Endocrine System
The main gland, also called master gland, is pituitary gland, which is responsible for the production of hormones. It is sized as a pea and located in the lower area of the brain. It has two parts called posterior lobe and anterior lobe. Anterior is responsible for hormones secreted by thyroid, reproductive and adrenal glands. It also produces growth hormone, which sends minerals and nutrients to the whole body, milk production triggering hormone called prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone called thyrotrophic and adrenal stimulating hormone called corticotrophin. Two hormones are secreted by the posterior lobe and they are oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone. Oxytocin is responsible for muscle contraction during the childbirth, while antidiuretic is responsible for regulating levels of water in the body. The pituitary gland also aids the production of sex hormones and endorphins.
Next organ is hypothalamus, which helps the secretion of the hormones by the pituitary gland. It connects the nervous and endocrine system and it can be found above the main gland. The gland called thyroid gland is located in the lower neck and is responsible for production of thyroxin and triiodothyronine hormones, which are responsible for controlling the chemical reactions within the body. These hormones help the bone growth, they develop the nervous system and the brain. Connected to the thyroid, the parathyroid gland manufactures the hormone that controls the calcium in the blood, called parathyroid hormone. The adrenal glands, which have triangular shape and are located on top of the kidneys, have adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex parts. Secretion of corticosteroid hormone, which is responsible for controlling salt and water levels, sexual development and function, immune system, is secreted by the adrenal cortex. Epinephrine is produced by the adrenal medulla. This hormone, also called adrenalin, increases the heart rate, makes the blood vessels and air passages wider when we find ourselves in the stressful situations. The secretion of melatonin, which regulates the hormonal alteration in adolescence period and sleep cycle, is done by a gland located at the center of the brain, the pineal gland. Gonads or the reproductive glands are responsible for production of female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and male sex hormones, testosterones. Scrotum is the home of testes or male gonads and is responsible for the sexual and physical development and growth of facial and pubic hair. The production of eggs is aided by the ovaries that secrete the female sex hormones. Secretion of insulin and glucagon, which look after the blood sugar levels, is done by pancreas. In order to have a healthy and functioning body, every organ in the endocrine system has to function properly.