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Endocrine System

We will give a list of organs in this system and talk about them more indetail, but we have to say a few words about the endocrine system itself. It isresponsible for the hormone secretion, because endocrine glands are responsible for manufacturing the chemicals called hormones, which are crucial for the proper functioning of the body since they are responsiblefor proper functioning of the metabolism, reproductive processes, organfunctioning, mood regulation, and many others. The system we are talking aboutsends the hormones to the cells in the human body by the bloodstream.

Types of Organs in the Endocrine System

The main gland, also called master gland, is pituitary gland, which isresponsible for the production of hormones. It is sized as a pea and located inthe lower area of the brain. It has two parts called posterior lobe andanterior lobe. Anterior is responsible for hormones secreted by thyroid,reproductive and adrenal glands. It also produces growth hormone, which sendsminerals and nutrients to the whole body, milk production triggering hormonecalled prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone called thyrotrophic and adrenalstimulating hormone called corticotrophin. Two hormones are secreted by theposterior lobe and they are oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone. Oxytocin isresponsible for muscle contraction during the childbirth, while antidiuretic isresponsible for regulating levels of water in the body. The pituitary glandalso aids the production of sex hormones and endorphins.

Next organ is hypothalamus, which helps the secretion of the hormones bythe pituitary gland. It connects the nervous and endocrine system and itcan be found above the main gland. The gland called thyroid gland is located inthe lower neck and is responsible for production of thyroxin andtriiodothyronine hormones, which are responsible for controlling the chemicalreactions within the body. These hormones help the bone growth, they develop the nervoussystem and the brain. Connected to the thyroid, the parathyroid glandmanufactures the hormone that controls the calcium in the blood, calledparathyroid hormone.The adrenal glands, which have triangular shape and are located on top of thekidneys, have adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex parts. Secretion ofcorticosteroid hormone, which is responsible for controlling salt and water levels,sexual development and function, immune system, is secreted by the adrenalcortex. Epinephrine is produced by the adrenal medulla. This hormone, alsocalled adrenalin, increases the heart rate, makes the blood vessels and air passageswider when we find ourselves in the stressful situations. The secretion of melatonin, which regulates the hormonal alteration in adolescence period andsleep cycle, is done by a gland located at the center of the brain, the pineal gland. Gonads or the reproductive glands are responsible for productionof female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and male sex hormones, testosterones. Scrotum is the home of testes or male gonads and isresponsible for the sexual and physical development and growth of facial andpubic hair. The production of eggs is aided by the ovaries that secrete thefemale sex hormones. Secretion of insulin and glucagon, which look after theblood sugar levels, is done by pancreas. In order to have a healthy and functioning body, every organ in the endocrinesystem has to function properly.

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