An intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a score derived from one of several special standardized tests designed to assess intelligence. The term Intelligenz-Quotient was made by the German psychologist William Stern in 1912. He developed the first method of scoring children's intelligence tests. However, the intelligence testing first began in France back in 1904, when psychologist Alfred Binet tried to find a method to differentiate between children who were intellectually normal and those who were inferior. The purpose behind this investigations was to put the inferior children in special schools where they could get all of the necessary attention.
Alfred Binet and Theophile Simon composed the first recognized scale for IQ measurement. In the early days, the test was composed of following commands, copying patterns, naming objects and putting things in appropriate order. The scale was revised a couple of times to be published in 1916. as the Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Scale of Intelligence (also known as the Stanford-Binet). The test was standard for all intelligence measurements for the next couple of decades.
Understanding the Intelligence Quotients
By definition, the average IQ score is 100. If a person scores more than 100 points on IQ test, that is a strong indicator of a higher than average IQ. Scores lower than 100 normally indicate lower than average IQ. Half of the population is averagely bright, meaning that half of all people have IQ’s of between 90 and 110. Somewhere around 25% of people have higher than average IQ’s and 25% have lower IQ’s. Just a small portion of people, about 2.2% of world population, has extremely good IQ score, above 130. Here is a quick review:
- 130+, Very superior intelligence, 2.2% of people
- 120-129, Superior intelligence, 6.7% of people
- 110-119, High average intelligence, 16.1% of people
- 90-109, Average intelligence 50% of people
- 80-89, Low average intelligence 16.1% of people
- 70-79, Borderline intelligence 6.7%, of people
- Below 70, extremely low intelligence 2.2% of people
The purpose of testing
IQ tests are fun but also very rewarding as the IQ gives a good indication of the occupational group that a person will end up in. Today IQ testing is used not primarily for children, but also for adults. Nowadays scientists are focused on making such tests that will determine an adult's true mental potential, unaffected by culture or language, and compare scores to the scores of other people who have taken the same test. There is even a high IQ community, known as Mensa, that provides a forum for intellectual exchange among its members. The activities are focused on exchange of ideas through lectures, discussions, journals, special-interest groups, and local, regional, national and international gatherings. Membership of Mensa is open to persons who have attained a score within the upper two percent of the general population on an approved intelligence test that has been properly administered and supervised.