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Acute nausea and vomiting

Introduction

Acute nausea and vomiting occur suddenly, worsen and last for only a short amount of time. In most cases they occur together, even though there are exceptions.

Causes

The most common causes of acute nausea and vomiting include viral gastroenteritis and certain types of medications. Other common causes of acute nausea and vomiting may or may not include metabolic disorders such as adrenal insufficiency or uremia, gastroparesis, anxiety, trauma to the head, infection in abdomen, intestines or stomach, inflammation of the pancreas, inflammation of the liver, early stages of pregnancy, various types of drugs and medicines and excessive amounts of alcoholic beverages. Sometimes the acute nausea and vomiting can be accompanied by painful sensations in the stomach and those are commonly caused by injuries, bowel twisting, bowel blockage, stomach ulcers, heart attack, bacteria or parasites in the digestive system, gallstones and inflammatory conditions which may affect kidneys, pancreas, stomach, gallbladder, appendix and several other organs. Acute nausea and vomiting may sometimes be accompanied by more saliva than usual, problems with digestion and pale skin. These symptoms are commonly causes by problems with balance, inner ear disorders, seizures, migraines, swelling of the tissue which covers the brain, bleeding in the brain, increased pressure in the brain and problems in the autonomic nervous system.

Signs and Symptoms

It is important to inform the doctor about any history of nausea and vomiting and for how long they continued. It is also very important to provide detailed information on meals and dietary habits. If a person suffered from gallstones or stomach surgery, it needs to be noted as well. The most common signs and symptoms of acute nausea and vomiting include splashing sounds in the stomach and tenderness, swelling and painful sensations in the abdomen. Other possible signs and symptoms may or may not include yellowing of the whites of the eyes and the skin, hearing loss, vertigo, low blood pressure, dizziness, slow heartbeat, unusual or fast eye movements, uncontrolled movements, neck stiffness, muscle pain, bloody stool, diarrhea, problems with eyesight, increased eye pressure, confusion and headaches.

Treatment

It is very important to keep the body properly hydrated, because vomiting may lead to dehydration of the body. Medications commonly used for the treatment of acute nausea and vomiting include gastrointestinal stimulants, motion sickness medications, antiemetics and antianxiety medicines. Other procedures which may be used during the treatment of acute nausea and vomiting include nasogastric tube, intravenous fluids and gastric pacing.

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