What is Hyponatemia
Hyponatemia is a condition that features with low level of sodium in blood. Sodium is an electrolyte whose primary function is to regulate the amount of water within the body. This reflects on blood pressure and proper function of muscles and nerves.
The level of sodium tends to decrease if a person drinks too much water. It can also be caused by certain medications. In case that hyponatemia is caused by some medical condition if the condition is brought under control the levels of sodium will come back to normal. In some cases simple reduction of fluid intake will solve the problem.
Types of Hyponatremia
Normal level of sodium within human body ranges from 136 and 145 mE/L. If the level of sodium falls below 135 hyponatremia occurs.
In hypervolemic hyponatremia there is too much water and the sodium that is present in the fluid is diluted. This type of hypernatremia occurs in case of failure of different organs such as heart, kidneys or liver.
Euvolemic hyponatremia presents with normal amount of water but the level of sodium is lower than regular. Euvolemic hyponatremia is present in certain chronic diseases. Malignant tumors as well as certain medications can lead to euvolemic hyponatremia.
In hypovolemic hyponatremia the level of sodium is low. The amount of water is also rather low. This condition may occur if one is exposed to excessive strain such as prolonged exercise and he/ she does not take enough fluid and electrolytes. Excessive bleeding is additional cause of hypovolemic hyponatremia.
Cause of Hyponatermia
Hyponatremia may accompany numerous medical conditions and in some cases it can be connected to certain predisposing factors.
During different sports activities one may take too much water. This way the sodium is lost via perspiration and excessive water only dilutes what is left of sodium.
Addison's disease presents with certain hormonal imbalance which also affects the level of sodium.
Another hormonal imbalance that can lead to hyponatremia is hypothyroidism. Insufficient production of thyroid hormones can be the cause of low level of sodium.
Diuretics are medications that eliminate excessive fluid from the body. They are used in certain medical conditions. The majority of diuretics eliminate sodium together with water and this is the cause of hyponatremia. Apart from diuretics even some antidepressants and painkillers can lead to hyponatremia.
Hyponatremia can also be caused by syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone. This syndrome features with increased levels of anti-diuretic hormone. The hormone does not allow water to be properly excreted from the body.
Dehydratation mostly caused by prolonged vomiting or diarrhea can result in hyponatremia.
Ecstasy is a drug which is mainly combined with alcohol. This drug is responsible for severe cases of hyponatriemia.
And finally, chronic illnesses such as liver cirrhosis, kidney failure or chronic kidney diseases, and heart diseases can be a cause of hyponariemia.