Major depression is also commonly known under the names of major depressive disorder, clinical disorder, or just depression. This disorder affects the mind, as well as the body. It is a chronic disease, which has negative effects on the person’s thinking, feeling, and behavior. The most common symptoms of major depression are the feelings of sadness, hopelessness, anxiety, frustration, and agitation. Furthermore, decreased concentration, slower thinking and speaking, the lack of sexual drive, as well as fatigue, tiredness, insomnia or excessive sleeping may also appear. In addition to these signs, during the depression, the person sometimes has the feelings of guilt or worthlessness. What is most serious when this disorder is in the question, is that some persons even have suicidal thoughts and frequently consider their own death. In such cases it is crucial to immediately call someone who is quite confident, be it a friend, a family member, or a doctor.
As for the causes of the major depression, biological differences, neurotransmitters, hormones, inherited traits, stresses life events, and early childhood trauma are usually considered to be the major causes for this disorder. Major depression requires proper treatment throughout the whole life, even in the periods when the person who suffers from this disorder feels better.
Major depression is usually treated with antidepressants. There are six classes of antidepressant: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and norepinephirine reuptake inhibitors, norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors, atypical antidepressants, tricyclic antidepressants, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. At the beginning of the treatment, the doctors usually prescribe selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, because they have the mildest side effects, such as decreased sexual interest and, in some cases, headache, restlessness, insomnia, and digestive problems. The most effective drugs of this kind are fluoxetine, paroxetine, citalopram, sertraline, and escitalopram. Duloxetine, venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine are the most used medications of the serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors class, which can cause sweating and dizziness as the side effects. Of all the norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors, the doctors usually recommend bupropion that in some cases it increases the risks of the seizures appearance. Trazodone and mirtazapine are two typical antidepressants that are usually taken in the evening and improves sleeping. Tricyclic antidepressants tend to be avoided because they have many negative and serious side effects, such as low blood pressure, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, confusion, urinary retention, and the gaining of the weight.