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Adenomyosis is a medical condition during which the muscular walls of the uterus are affected by the growth of endometrial tissue. The endometrium normally layers the uterus, where is creates the ultimate environment for fertilized eggs to nestle during certain stages of the menstrual cycle. It should not, however, grow in the muscular tissues. Unlike endometriosis, adenomyosis strictly refers to the growth of uterine lining in the layer of the uterus where it should not be. Adenomyosis often does go hand in hand with endometriosis. And, like the condition in which the uterine lining grows in other parts of the reproductive system, outside of the uterus, adenomyosis mainly happens to women who are in their childbearing years.

Some women have no symptoms, and will not even find out they have adenomyosis. Most have heavy menstrual bleeding, painful menstruation, pain during sex and sharp abdominal pains at random times. In addition, women who suffer from adenomyosis often experience bleeding in between two periods, and may pass blood clots during their menstruation. The cause of adenomyosis is still unclear. What is known, though, is that it almost always goes away after the menopause. Some say that childbirth is linked to adenomyosis, but women who have not had any children can get it too. A cesarean section is also said to increase a woman's risk of adenomyosis.

One theory is that the root of adenomyosis is actually during pregnancy in other words, that it is while the patient was still in the womb herself. Diagnosis can take place through a pelvic examination, ultrasound technology, or an MRI scan or indeed a combination. An endometrial biopsy can also be carried out in some instances.In most cases adenomyosis has no ill effect on a woman's overall health. It can be treated with anti-inflammatory or hormonal medications or solved with a hysterectomy in extreme cases.

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