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Signs, symptoms and treatment of breast cancer

Breast Cancer 


Breast cancer occurs when tumor cells in the body begin to change and proliferate uncontrollably. Cancer usually occurs in the form of knot called malignant tumor. As tumor is growing it attacks and destroys healthy tissue in which it appeared, or the surrounding tissue. Tumor cells can separate from the tumor and leave the place of origin, extending to other parts of the body where they continue to grow. Node created in this way is called metastasis.

Risk Factors

Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor in women. It rarely occurs before the age of twenty, and, it is most common among people aged between 55 and 70 years.

The risk factors of breast cancer are:

  • the first period before the age of 12
  • menopause before the 50th year of life
  • childbirth after the thirties or not at all
  • normal structure cells disorder
  • already operated a breast cancer
  • breast cancer in the family

The risk of breast cancer increases in women over the fifties with obesity and relation of weight to height. Women with wet cerumen are more prone to breast cancer.

Symptoms of Breast Cancer 

Signs of breast cancer include:
  • painless node in the breast. Sometimes the knot is painful on touch or followed by spontaneous pain
  • ichory or bloody discharge from the nipple. This secretion can rarely be transparent or blurred
  • nipple is often pushed in and cannot be pulled out. Some women have the naturally indented nipples, but they are not attached to that position as with breast cancer and can be partially extracted
  • rash, breast skin wounds and scabs on nipples
  • limited skin indent above the tumor and breast skin that looks like orange peel
  • redness, swelling, warmness and painful sensitivity are the typical signs of breast cancer inflammatory form
  • increased lymph nodes in the armpit, pain in the back or pathological bone fractures that arise because of metastasis

Diagnosis

Diagnosing breast cancer needs next examinations:
  • examination changes by touching the breasts, the armpit, above the collarbone area, stomach, liver and review of the pelvis sensitivity to pain and pat
  • mammography and possible galactography
  • puncture of the breast node and operational biopsy
  • blood tests and the amount of the alkaline phosphatase enzyme which is increased in the states of reinforced bone degradation
  • X-ray of the chest and the skeleton

Treatment for Breast Cancer 

Treatment of breast cancer consists of several methods, and depends on the stage of disease, a type of tumor cells and their maleficence, hormone-sensitivity of tumor and patient’s age due to the menstrual cycle.

Methods of treatment are:

  • Primary systemic therapy - sometimes it is necessary to use primary systemic therapy to reduce tumor size before surgical intervention.
  • Surgery -primary tumors are usually removed surgically. Type of surgical procedure depends on the stage of disease, tumor type, age and general condition of the patient. Surgery can remove the entire breast (mastectomy) or the part of the breast with tumor and its surrounding, as well as lymph nodes from the same side axillary pit.
  • Radiotherapy radiant therapy involves exposure of operated breast area and regional lymph nodes to high energy X-rays. It is usually carried out after surgery to reduce the risk of local recurrence.
  • Hormone therapy-it is believed that two thirds of breast cancers have a higher estrogen receptors demonstration and they are designated as ER positive. Hormone therapy is then applied in the adjuvant therapy approach or metastatic disease.
  • Chemotherapy-chemotherapy is used in the adjuvant approach, as well as in the treatment of advanced illness.
  • Biological therapy-monoclonal antibodies are targeted treatment of breast cancer.

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