There are two kinds of arthritis. Osteoarthritis causes destruction of cartilage in the joints, causing the bare bones to rub together, which is painful and reduces the joint's ability to move. In some cases, the joint can even be moved out of its place. Rheumatoid arthritis is a serious autoimmune disease (condition when one's immune system turns against normal structures of the organism) that targets and destroys joints. Pain and swelling are typical for rheumatoid arthritisHalux rigidus
Halux stands for big toe in Latin, while rigidus means rigid. It is a term for stiffening of the big toe and metatarsophalangeal (meta tarso phalange al) joint (that joint where you see your big toe flex when you wiggle it, also known as big toe joint) which eventually leaves the toe rigid and painful. This is a form of osteoarthritis, whose underlying cause is usually a deformity such as fallen arches or flat feet. Wearing of the big toe joint is quicker in presence of such deformities. As with all joint conditions, this one also worsens in cold and damp weather.
Bunion is often confused with Halux rigidus. It is a condition caused either by a displacement of the metatarsal bone of the foot (that bone to which the big toe is attached via the big toe joint) or by excessive growth of bone at the place where big toe joint is located. It is usually recognizable as a sideways bony protrusion at the big toe joint, typically accompanied by big toe that seems to be pushed towards other toes. It is usually painful condition, and if it is not, it is less than visually attractive and can really limit your choice of shoes.
Gout was known as disease of the rich, probably as it was believed to be closely related to overeating and excessive drinking of quality alcoholic beverages, things once reserved only for those whose pockets are full. It is caused by crystallization of excess uric acid in the joints (big toe joint is usually a favorite spot for gout rampage), which causes pain, swelling and tenderness of the joint - symptoms of inflammatory arthritis.
This would be one of the most common reasons for pain in the foot, as well as in big toe. It is caused by damage to nerves, tissues or bones located in the foot. Prominent position of the big toe on the foot makes it the ideal candidate to suffer all kinds of injuries.