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We will talk about the prognosis associated with this problem. This is a problem of a skin cancer, which can affect almost anybody, regardless of the sex or age. This type of skin cancer is created in the cells of the skin, which are called melanocytes, which is why this type of skin cancer is one of the most dangerous possible. The cells that produce pigments are the mentioned melanocytes, which are located in the skin and basically are responsible for the color of the skin. There are several stages of the melanoma and there are the factors that influence the prognosis significantly.

First we will see what melanoma is. There are two layers of human skin and they are dermis and epidermis. Dermis is the deeper layer while epidermis is the outmost layer. Epidermis is the place where melanocytes are located and from there they create melanin, which is a dark pigment that gives the skin its color. There are several causes of the creation of melanoma in the epidermis, such as ultraviolet radiation. Tumor may also be present, and it is created if the location of the development of the cancerous cells is not epidermis but dermis. The more dangerous tumor is a malignant tumor, which is a result of a mutant melanocyte’s effect. Melanoma can be described as spots with irregular borders.

Staging and Prognosis

The stages of the tumor are divided according to spreading rate, affected organs and the size of the tumor. There are five stages of melanoma, and the prognoses are worse with every next stage.

Factors that determine the prognosis are malignancy's severity and nature, organs affected, tumor's mitotic rate, melanoma stage, malignant tumor's size, cancer invasion depth, and melanoma type. The treatment will be more effective if the problem is detected in the earlier stage. The cancer can expand and affect the brain, liver, lungs and other organs, which can lead to many additional medical problems. This makes the early detection crucial for the treatment since the problem can expand very quickly. There are 95% of chances that the treatment will be successful if the problem is detected in the first stage. But, the next stages are associated with only 60% of chances for survival after five years. The prognosis is also influenced by the analysis of the tumor and evidence of epidermis ulcerations. Also, if the problem has included lymph nodes, survival rate declines.

These are the facts associated with the survival rate of five years. But these are general information, but the fact is that every case is different, since there are so many factors that determine the outcome.

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