Vertigo occurs when there is confusion of signals which are sent to the brain by the body systems for balance and movement. Maintaining proper balance of the body involves four systems. The first of these is a vision that sends information about body position in relation to the space that surrounds it to the brain. Then, nerve transmitters in the joints inform the brain about moving arms, legs and torso. Proper functioning of this system allows automatic movement and balance. Third system is pressure on the skin, which sends signals about mutual interaction of gravity and body to the brain. And finally, there is a part of the inner ear, known as the labyrinth, which detects movement and position change. Braking of this system causes disturbance in the transmission of signals about the position of the body and confusion with the signals sent by other systems. This ultimately results in dizziness.
The most common causes of the vertigo are:
- inner ear diseases (benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, Meniere's disease, vestibular neuritis and labyrinthitis),
- ear or head trauma,
- migraine accompanied by nausea, vomiting and sensitivity to light, noise and smell,
- decreased blood flow through the arteries that bring blood to the brain
Benign growths behind the eardrum and a brain tumor or cancer of some other body part that metastasized to the brain in rare cases can cause dizziness.
Also, dizziness may be a side effect of taking or discharge from service certain medications. In addition, drug overdoses, using alcohol with several types of drugs at the elderly and the abuse of alcohol and drugs can cause dizziness.
If dizziness is followed by loss of function of certain body parts, it is necessary to seek medical help because it may be a consequence of stroke or transient ischemic attack.
Dizziness may be relieved by applying some very simple procedures such as:
- focusing technique - means focusing and maintaining look on the immovable object so visual signals could consolidate the balance and reduces the dizziness.
- massage - given that tense neck muscles due to prolonged sitting in the same position can cause dizziness, massage these muscles contributes to their relaxation reducing dizziness
- diet - increased intake of protein and vitamins can significantly ease symptoms of vertigo. Coffee, iced tea, sweets and fried foods should be avoided. Also, dizziness can occur as a result of an imbalance of salt in the body and poor digestion. In this case, it is necessary to consume salty potato chips, pretzels or salty broth, which will in just a few hours fully rectify dizziness.
- cold water - a problem with vertigo can be solved with only 2-3 glasses of ice water
- slow motion - during an attack of vertigo it is necessary to move slowly to avoid possible injury due to falling positioning of the head - since the dizziness may occur as a result of sudden head movement, while looking up neck striking and bending backwards should be avoided.
- pillows - in the case of vertigo it is best to lie down but with the setting pillows under the head.
- disposing video game for a while – it is proved that the fast-paced virtual reality video games can cause dizziness. Therefore it is necessary to take a break in playing.
- therapeutic methods - include yoga, meditation, breathing exercises to help concentration and purification of body and mind which helps in eliminating vertigo.