Penis is the male reproductive organ which is shaped like arod and its main purposes include passing the urine and the sperm from thebody. The penis contains two types of erectile tissue which are wrapped inconnective tissue. For those who do not know, erectile tissue is a spongy typeof tissue which consists of blood vessels which need to be filled with blood sothat an erection may occur. These two types of tissues are then surrounded bythe skin. Head of the penis is called the glans and it is covered by loose typeof skin which is called the foreskin. Corpora cavernosa are actually twodifferent columns of erectile tissue which form the biggest part of the penis.Corpus spongiosum is a singular column of erectile tissue which surrounds theurethra and it forms the smaller portion of the erectile tissue of the penis. The urethra is a tube through which the sperm andthe urine are passed from the body.
There are certain types of risk factors which may contributeto the development of penile cancer. Penile cancer is a medical conditioncharacterized by a development of malignant or cancerous cells in the tissuesof the penis. Fortunately enough, this type of medical condition is relativelyrare as it affects one out of 100,000 men. Risk factors are all different typesof factors which may be held responsible for increasing the chance of gettingsome sort of disease. The most common risk factors associated with thedevelopment of penile cancer include using various different types of tobaccoproducts, having many sexual partners, having poor personal hygiene, being 60or older and having phimosis. Phimosis is a medical condition in which theforeskin of the penis cannot be pulled back over the head of the penis. Anothercommon risk factor for the development of penile cancer is humanpapillomavirus. This type of virus is known for being prone to causing penileinfections. Such problems may be solved by performing a circumcision in whichcertain parts or the entire foreskin gets removed from the penis.
HVP can lead to penile cancer
The aforemention human papillomavirus infections arecommonly transmitted sexually and it is very important to prevent them fromoccurring in order to reduce to risk of penile cancer. According to certainmedicinal studies, the human papillomavirus can be held responsible for atleast 50 percent of all cases of penile cancer. The actual term humanpapillomavirus is an umbrella term which includes more than 100 different typesof viruses. According to the aforementioned studies, the type of humanpapillomavirus which is the most common contributing factor in the developmentof penile cancer is the so called HPV-16. This virus is usually associated withtwo types of penile cancer which include squamous cell carcinomas and basaloidcell carcinomas.
Different therapies for penile cancer
Fortunately enough, there are a large number of treatmentoptions available to all those who suffer from penile cancer. Some of thosetreatment methods are already established as standard procedures, while some ofthem are still tested in various clinical trials. For those who do not know,clinical trials are certain types of studies commonly performed so that newtypes of treatments can be invented and the established ones may get improved. Asfar as established, standard procedures go, there are three main types whichinclude chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery. Chemotherapy utilizescertain types of medications which may be very efficient in killing thecancerous cells or at least stopping them from dividing and spreading thedisease. It can be taken orally or it can be injected directly into a muscle ora vein. These options are referred to as systemic chemotherapy. Topicalchemotherapy involves placing the medicament directly onto the skin. Anothercommonly used type of treatment for all those who suffer from penile cancer isthe radiation therapy. It involves the usage of high energy X-rays in order tokill the harmful cancerous cells or at least to stop them from dividing andspreading the disease further to other organs. There is also a special type ofradiation therapy called internal radiation therapy which involves aradioactive substances which is sealed in the catheters, wires, seeds orneedles which then need to be placed directly into the affected body part. Themost common type of treatment for all those who suffer from penile cancer issurgery in which the cancer gets removed completely. Different types ofsurgeries include the amputation of the penis, which may involve partial ortotal penectomy. Other types of surgeries which may be used include wide localexcision, circumcision, cryosurgery, laser surgery and Mohs microsurgery. Newtypes of treatments currently tested in clinical trials include sentinel lymphnode biopsy, radiosensitizers and biologic therapy.