Infant Mortality Rate
Infant mortality rate is a number used to define the number of infant deaths per 1000 live births. Infants are babies who are no more thanone year old. This rate is always given for a certain region, country or stateand during the period of one year. The rate is calculated by dividing thenumber of dying newborns by the total number of live births during the year andmultiplying it by 1,000. For numerous years, the leading cause of infantmortality everywhere around the world was dehydration from diarrhea. In recentyears, this cause has been somewhat suppressed by spreading sufficientinformation about oral rehydration solution which consists of water mixed with sugar and salts. Nowadays, the leading cause of infant mortality ispneumonia, along with several other conditions which include SIDS, various types ofinfections, congenital malformation, malaria and malnutrition. Certain other less common causes of infantmortality include neglect, child abandonment, child abuse and in some caseseven infanticide. There are also other subcategories of infantmortality and those include child mortality which includes deaths of childrenup to five years old, postneonatal mortality which includes deaths of infantsbetween 28 days and one year old, neonatal mortality which includes deaths ofinfants no more than 28 days old and perinatal mortality which includes deathsbetween 22 weeks gestation and the end of the seventh day after delivery. Theinfant mortality rates have declined significantly as the Western civilizationsgrew bigger and more modern, mainly because of high technology used in medicaladvances and health care. It is important to stress out that the infantmortality rate is one of the most common standards of living evaluation ineconomics. Each country’s level of health and development is stronglycorrelated with its infant mortality rate. Areas affected by war also commonlyexperience a significant increase in their infant mortality rates simplybecause there are very strong external factors present, such as abuse andmurder. War is also commonly associated with collapsed health care systems and difficultiesin attaining basic medical care and supplies, especially when infants areconcerned. Another big issue during a war is that all diseases which areotherwise preventable may easily rise to become epidemics. As a general rule,infant mortality rates are much higher in less developed countries than in more developed countries. The ratio is 17 to 1.
Infant Mortality Ratesin Countries
The country with the highest infant mortality rate in theworld is Angola and its rate is 180.21. It is closely followed by Sierra Leonewhich has an infant mortality rate of 154.43. The third on the list isAfghanistan with a rate of 151.95, and it is followed by Liberia with a rate of138.24. On the fifth place is Niger with an infant mortality rate of 116.66. Onthe other hand, the country with the lowest mortality rate is Singapore with arate of 2.31, followed by Bermuda with a rate of 2.46, Sweden with a rate of2.71, Japan with a rate of 2.79 and Hong Kong with a rate of 2.92. The UnitedStates are characterized by an infant mortality rate of 6.3. Alabama has a rateof 8.96, Alaska has a rate of 6.45, Arizona has a rate of 6.69, Arkansas has arate of 8.29, California has a rate of 5.22, Colorado has a rate of 6.27,Connecticut has a rate of 5.53, Delaware has a rate of 9.03, District ofColumbia has a rate of 14.1, Florida has a rate of 7.24, Georgia has a rate of8.35, Hawaii has a rate of 6.67, Idaho has a rate of 6.12, Illinois has a rateof 7.53, Indiana has a rate of 7.87, Iowa has a rate of 5.40, Kansas has a rateof 7.12, Kentucky has a rate of 6.79, Louisiana has a rate of 9.79, Maine has arate of 5.87, Maryland has a rate of 8.00, Massachusetts has a rate of 4.89,Michigan has a rate of 8.02, Minnesota has a rate of 4.78, Mississippi has arate of 10.74, Missouri has a rate of 7.63, Montana has a rate of 6.35,Nebraska has a rate of 5.89, Nevada has a rate of 5.86, New Hampshire has arate of 5.05, New Jersey has a rate of 5.44, New Mexico has a rate of 6.13, NewYork has a rate of 6.02, North Carolina has a rate of 8.85, North Dakota has arate of 6.35, Ohio has a rate of 7.82, Oklahoma has a rate of 7.86, Oregon hasa rate of 5.68, Pennsylvania has a rate of 7.30, Rhode Island has a rate of6.20, South Carolina has a rate of 9.03, South Dakota has a rate of 7.18,Tennessee has a rate of 8.87, Texas has a rate of 6.45, Utah has a rate of4.92, Vermont has a rate of 5.37, Virginia has a rate of 7.50, Washington has arate of 5.39, West Virginia has a rate of 8.1, Wisconsin has a rate of 6.34 andWyoming has a rate of 6.95.
Infant Mortality as a Historical Economic Indicator
Infant mortality rate can also be observed as a ratherimportant historical economic indicator because of the existence of a negativerelationship between various economic factors, such as average wages, and theinfant mortality rates.