We should first note that there is in fact no such thing as "the epidural", since the exact amount of drugs and their combination varies depending on who your anesthesiologist is. One part of epidural anesthesia is made up of local anesthetic medications like bupivacaine, chloroprocaine, and lidocaine. The other part consists of opioids or narcotics such as fentanyl and Sufentanil, and epinephrine, fentanyl, morphine, and clonidine. So, what are the risks?
Risks for babyFetal distress is one of the main risks of epidural anesthesia. This happens when a baby's heartbeat goes down to dangerously low levels, and may be the direct result of the low blood pressure some mothers experience following the placement of an epidural. Some sources say that epidurals can lead to fetal malpositioning, and babies born to mothers who had an epidural have higher instances of shoulder dystocia, and vacuum or forceps delivery. Epidurals may lead to breastfeeding problems.
Risks for mothersLow blood pressure is one of the most common side effects of epidural anesthesia, affecting as many as one third of all women who choose to have an epidural. Hypotension negatively affects the volume of blood one can pump through the body, including blood supply to the placenta. Seizures can occur following an epidural. Anaphylactic shock is another risk of epidural anesthesia. Epidurals increase the risk you will have a c-section due to fetal distress or a stalled labor (they can sometimes be a little too effective and stop contractions). Breathing difficulties can occur, especially in women who suffer from asthma. Some women end up with nerve damage where the epidural was inserted.
You might also like to read, how will you feel after giving birth?