Damaged heart valve and systolic murmur
Various causes lead to creation of systolic murmur, though it usually happens if heart’s valves are damaged. Deformation of valvecan be congenital (inherited) or acquired in life due to several reasons.Acquired conditions can be isolated and combined. For example, combinedcondition affects not just one, but several valves and it is also followed by theobstruction or insufficiency of right or left heart ventricular chamber.
Most common cause of the damaged valve (mitral and aortal) is rheumaticfever. Another type of valve, tricuspid is usually damaged thanks to the insufficiencyof the right part of the heart, or it is a consequence of the decomposition ofthe left part of the heart. Beside rheumatic fever, common causes of the damagedvalve are myxomatous degeneration, endocarditis, calcification of valves inolder people, and prolapse of valve. Inflammatory process in rheumatoid feverleads to changes of valves that include thickening of their tissue, calcification and fibrosis. As a consequence of those changes,depending on the type of valve, different murmur can be heard.
Conditions caused by damaged valve
Insufficiency of aorta is caused by damaged aorta valve andsystolic murmur is a symptom of this condition. Another cause of aortainsufficiency can be syphilis or Marfan syndrome, which is characterizedby damaged connective valve tissue. Also, certain congenital abnormalities might bethe cause, such as bicuspid instead of tricuspid valve. Aortal insufficiency includesregurgitation, returning of the blood from aorta into heart because of thedamaged valves. As a result, dyspnea happens, pain in the chest, syncope (loss ofconsciousness), and three types of murmurs can be heard in this situation. Thoseare diastolic, midsystolic, and Austin-Flint murmur. The last murmur is heardbecause of the pressure that blood applies on frontal mitral valve.
Another condition caused by damaged valves and symptomizedwith systolic murmur is mitral insufficiency and it is caused byseveral factors that lead to malfunction of the mitral valve. Usually thisvalve cannot completely close the gap between heart chambers while the heart ispumping and that ends in disrupted blood flow in the heart, which is a seriousheart problem. All these changes can be spotted with ECG and murmurs can beheard with stethoscope. A lot of experience and practice is needed in order fora doctor to hear and make a difference between several murmurs. Discovering those murmurs is a first step in dealing with the heart problems. Ifleft undiscovered, symptoms become more serious and damage of the heart is increasedand intensified.