Enuresis or bedwetting is involuntary urination or inability of one to prevent urination which subsequently leads to urine leakage. The condition most commonly affects children over the age of 5 but it may be also distributed among adults.
It is scientifically proven that humans gain control over the bladder by the time they are 3 years of age. During childhood the problem occurs when the child turns 5 years and has previously been able to hold urine. As for adults, it is estimated that 2-3% of people have problems with holding urine. This can be rather embarrassing issue, lead to isolation and even more complex illnesses such as depression.
There are many causes of enuresis in adults and the most common ones are some psychological conditions, infections of the urinary tract, certain diseases, weak bladder muscles, increased bladder pressure, some medications and hereditary factors.
Enuresis and Psychological Conditions
Certain number of adults suffer from enuresis associated with stress, fear or anxiety. The occurrence of bedwetting in such individuals is usually a consequence of some traumatic event. They may have had problems with bedwetting before, which they successfully overcame and now the same problem reoccurs.
Enuresis and Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary tract infections, usually urethritis and cystitis are frequent initiators of enuresis. The very infection irritates the affected organ (in this case the urethra or the bladder) and may be blamed for urine leakage.
Enuresis and Other Diseases
Many times enuresis develops as a consequence of already existing conditions. This is typically seen in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, people with cancer of the bladder or other organs in the pelvis and patients suffering from diabetes.
Enuresis and Problems with the Bladder
Muscles weakness that affects the bladder is commonly accompanied by enuresis. The muscles become weak due to the process of aging, some diseases etc. Furthermore, if the pressure inside the bladder is way too high, it may be blamed for enuresis in individuals who are simply incapable of holding the urge to urinate. Stress incontinence is another problem frequently associated with enuresis in adults.
Enuresis and Hereditary Factors
If a person has a positive family history of enuresis, it is highly likely he/she will develop the same condition. Having both parents suffering from enuresis makes the child even more prone to development of bedwetting.
Enuresis and Medications
Finally, some drugs make a person fall into deep sleep, being unable to wake up and urinate. This may lead to occasional enuresis. Also some medications may increase urine output over the night and increase the chance of bedwetting. Such drugs are supposed to be discontinued and replaced with other drugs which do not have such side effect.