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Pain is a displeasing feeling that can be of very low intensity or it can totally intolerable. Thesensation of pain depends on both the region that is affected and the reaction ofthe brain cortex on the impulse.

Pain medicationcan have different results on every patient and also the tolerance of pain divergesvastly from one to another, so one must take every condition into considerationwhen prescribing painkillers.

The most common NonsteroidalAnti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)that can be purchased over-the-counter (meaning that buyer does not need a prescription tobuy them) are Aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen. The first two aremedications with short term effects while the latter has a prolonged one. That means thatone is advised to take Aspirin and ibuprofen for quick pain alleviation whilenaproxen has a continuing effect.

On the other hand,there are many NSAIDs that can be bought only with prescriptions, such as fenoprofen (Nalfon), Indomethacin (Indocin, Indocin-SR), ketoprofen(Oruvail), piroxicam (Feldene). This category of medications is one of the mostmarked and sold by drug companies. There is no sure indication that the priceof medication is directly connected with its effect. Some NSAIDs are advertisedas being superior for some situations.

The most familiar side effect of NSAIDs is thefact that they can create bleeding in the abdomen which is caused by damage of the mucosis.It is largely connected with longer usage. Long-term use could also be the causeof kidney damage. Acetaminophen is the medication that is advised forlonger use because he is more secure.

It is familiar that the amount of doses doesnot augment the pain-relieving effect. For example, 400 mg of Motrin has an equal effecton diminishing the pain as 800 mg of Motrin, but on the other hand, bigger dosesincrease the danger of stomach bleeding.

Because of the mentioned effect of gutbleeding, drug companies have improved NSAIDs and made the new class of COX-2inhibitors.

Because of their brief existence on themarket, the side effects are not very well researched. It is not known if COX-2inhibitors cause lesser bleeding in the abdomen. Their pain-relieving characteristics compared to standard NSAILs are not totallyinvestigated. Today only celecoxib (Celebrex) can be purchased, since Valdecoxib(Bextra) and Rofecoxib (Vioxx) were removed from the market because ofdiscovered risks of heart attack, stroke, and skin damage.

Besides COX-2 inhibitors, there are otherways to avoid the risks of stomach complications, such as the prescription of misoprostol(Cytotec) or a proton pump inhibitor, such as Omeprazole (Prilosec),lansoprazole (Prevacid), or esomeprazole (Nexium), with NSAIDs.

Various combinations of medications can beused with different effects because the results differ greatly from one personto another. The main feature that should be taken into consideration is the dangerof heart and kidney damage. To relieve the short-term pain and prevent complications at the same time, one could take ibuprofen and afterward Percocetor Vicodin as needed.

For moderately severe pain, one can go for a combination ofacetaminophen and narcotics such as codeine, hydrocodone or oxycodone. For severepain, narcotics are better. The good side is that there isno maximum dosage, but in higher doses they can severely damage the breathingprocess.

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