If anal abscess splits anal fistula commonly develops on the crack. A little channel, a tract that may occur in between anal canal is called anal fistula. Anal fistula may bleed and may have a painful discharge due to a stooling. There are simple fistulas and complicated fistulas divaricate to a few tracts. Several fistulas may be linked with the sphincter muscles (muscles around the opening of anus).
Anal fistulas are more usual for men 20-40, in England often as 1 to 3 cases in 10 000 patients. There are conditions of Crohn's disease and IBS- irritable bowel syndrome that may have such a splitting anus affect on the intestines. According to some data Crohn’s disease may have higher % 30 to 50 to get anal fistula is about 30% patients with AIDS may get an anal fistula as well.
If left untreated anal fistula can not heal on its own. There were researches done recently to exploit non-surgical methods. But of course, there is a surgery that uses different methods to treat fistula, depending from the spot where it is developed and the degree of severity. After the surgery it is not rare for anal fistula to come back. With the most often anal fistula, a fistulotomy there is a chance for fistula to reappear again about 21%.
Anal Fistula Complications
There is a risk to get infection of anal fistula after the surgery. Having surgery on such a sensitive spot it is possible that fistula is not removed totally because surgery includes few stages, also, it is possible for channel of tract may spread on to other body parts. Treating infections includes using of antibiotics. If the infection is really complicated patient need to go to hospital and to get antibiotics via intravenously.
Surgery can be dangerous because it may destroy muscle ring around the opening of anus. If the muscles are severely damaged faeces stools may be leaking without any control from rectum. The condition is called bowel incontinence or faecal incontinence. If such condition is not brand new for patient, it is possible only after the surgery have even more complications.
Female patients with Crohn's disease are at more risk to have faecal incontinence after fistulotomy surgery. The complications may cause inflammation and swelling) of digestive system. There are techniques in surgery that raises possibility for complications after the surgery of anal fistula; those are an advancement flap procedure (6-8%) and set on techniques (17%).
Reappearance of anal fistula after fistulotomy is about 21% and after advancement flap procedure, the rate of reappearing fistula may be even 36%.