Dystonia is a disorder which affects muscles. It causes muscles to contract without control making the body twisted. As the muscles contract, a person makes movements as he/she is having a seizure and the body is left in an unusual position. Dystonia can be manifested just as a tremor of a specific part of the body or it can be severe when the patient's body is constantly deformed and the spasms are frequent.
The real cause of Dystonia is unknown but scientists think that it is connected to the function of basal ganglia which is responsible for controlling the movements. In Soma cases Dystonia can be inherited, it can be a consequence of the brain injury or it can be a side effect of a drug. Dystonia affects both males and females of any race.
There are two types of classification of Dystonia. One is according to the cause and the other is in relation to the part of the body it affects. Dystonia can be primary or secondary depending on the cause and generalized if the whole body is involved or focal if a specific part of the body is affected. The most common focal Dystonia are cervical Dystonia which involves the head, neck and spine (the patient's head is turned to one side), eyelids Dystonia, Dystonia which affects the jaw (the patient's mouth can be always open or shut tight), spasmodic Dystonia which involves vocal cords and occupational Dystonia which is triggered when the patient tries to perform some hand function such as write or play an instrument. There are cases where several parts of the body can be affected by Dystonia at the same time.
The treatment for Dystonia is determined according to the severity of the condition. The most common treatment is medications which will prevent or decrease muscle tremors and contractions. In rare cases a surgery is necessary when there is no response to medications. The surgery is the best for the patients with generalized Dystonia. This surgery is performed at the nervous system; in some cases it includes cutting the nerves in the neck or spine. The goal is to break off the nerve and muscle connection which is affected by Dystonia. The statistics have showed very good outcome after the surgery. Another treatment for Dystonia is a deep brain stimulation which has been successful in many cases. The results of such procedure will be seen after a few months.