There are couple studies that link infertility with diabetes, but the proofs are vague and they do not conclude that diabetes causes infertility. However, but poor blood sugar control makes everything difficult during a pregnancy. Research that was exercised by British scientists (published in Human Reproduction) links sperm DNA damage to diabetes and therefore claims that diabetic men are less fertile (not infertile!).
On the other hand the same study also finds out that statistics that include semen volume, motility and analysis of sperm in its form and structure seems to show no difference between diabetic and non-diabetic men. A study that was conducted on a population based cohort in Sweden also proved that women with type 1 diabetes do have increased infertility, but with strict metabolic control conception and later pregnancy should not be a problem.
Problems that occur during pregnancy in diabetic women
Morning sickness is not just a problem of diabetic women: many pregnant women must face morning nausea during their first trimester. Women with diabetes often deal with increased risk of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and presence of ketones in urine. Some diabetic women are also more exposed to higher rates of vaginal and urinary tract infections, and skin infections. Diabetic women with poor blood sugar control or many difficult complications are at higher risk for miscarriage. Because of high maternal blood sugar levels, diabetic women often give birth to large babies that weigh more than 10 pounds. For this reason Caesarean sections are many times performed.
Edema, also known as swelling is a common occurrence among diabetic women. In this case, limitation of salt consumption is essential in order to reduce excessive accumulation of fluid. Both diabetic men and women can experience preconception time and pregnancy as joyful period in their life. However, one of the most important steps of pregnancy planning is consultation with diabetes specialist even before couple starts trying to conceive. Only with careful planning, a couple is on a safe way to lower risks mentioned above, and on a journey to start a healthy and happy pregnancy.