Immune system has an ability to sustain the influence of allergens, but if this ability is hampered, it may lead to allergies. Foreign bodies always try to penetrate the human body and cause problems, but the immune system is the one that protects us from this invasion. There are many harmful foreign bodies such as parasites, viruses and bacteria and the immune system fights them of by releasing antibodies that eliminate them. Still, allergic reactions can happen if the immune system reacts to the molds, some foods, dust, pollen and other harmful substances. They can find their way through the nose and develop eye redness, nasal itching, mucus discharge, swelling, nasal congestion and sneezing.
Medications like antihistamines, steroids and decongestants are commonly used for treating nasal allergy. They can be relievers and just decrease the symptom’s strength, or controllers, which fight the cause of the problem. Relievers are medications like decongestants, while steroids and antihistamines are controllers.
When a body is having an allergic reaction, the immune system produces a chemical called histamine, and antihistamines work by preventing the connection between the histamine receptors located in cell surfaces and histamines. Human body has three types of histamine receptors and they are H1, H2 and H3. The symptoms of allergic reaction we have mentioned earlier, such as runny nose, itching and sneezing, are created when this connection is made, most commonly with H1 receptor. But these medications used to cause reduced mental awareness and drowsiness earlier, although they have evolved in the meantime and now they cause less sleepiness and they act slower.
Adrenalin glands manufacture steroids and some of them are very successful in the treatment of allergic reaction due to their anti-inflammatory abilities. They are corticosteroids and they are very effective when combating nose inflammation. A combined use of nasal steroids and antihistamines is very successful in treating nasal congestion, but side effects like nasal crust and nasal bleeding can be developed due to their long lasting use. It can lead to additional problems such as increased infection susceptibility, cataract and blood thinning.
Nasal allergy causes nasal congestion, which can be treated with the help of decongestants. The allergic reaction causes the blood vessels to broaden up and this makes way for increased fluid outflow. Congestion is created when this happens along with the nasal swelling membrane. Stiffness, or nasal congestion, can be eliminated by decreasing the fluid flow of the blood vessels and by making them shrink in size, which is what decongestants do. This opens up the nasal passage and brings relief. There are some side effects possible, like nose dryness and burning sensation, but they are connected with the overuse. Rebound nasal congestion can also happen if these medications are in use for several days constantly. Irritability, appetite loss, insomnia, nervousness and palpitations are some of the side effects of oral decongestants.