Definition of Hyperopia
Hyperopia is a certain type of medical condition which can be characterized as a defect of vision triggered by imperfections in the eye. Those who suffer from hyperopia cannot focus on near objects normally and severe cases may include difficulties in focusing objects at any distances. These imperfections occur when a person has eyeballs which are too short or when a person has lens which are not round enough. The image a person sees when experiences hyperopia is blurred because the power of the lens and the cornea are insufficient.
Treatment Options for Hyperopia
Hyperopia is known for producing binocular dysfunction, amblyopia, blurred vision and visual discomfort, especially when it is left uncorrected. Various learning problems can be associated with significant cases of hyperopia. All different treatment options are commonly meant to alleviate the existing problems and prevent any future risks or damage from occurring due to hyperopia. All different cases of hyperopia require specifically tailored elements of treatment. There are different types of factors which need to be taken into consideration during the planning of different treatment strategies and those commonly include the patient’s symptoms, the demands placed on the visual system, convergence, the status of accommodation, the presence of an associated amblyopia, the presence of an associated esotropia, the patient’s age, the presence of anisometropia, the presence of astigmatism and the overall magnitude of the hyperopia. There are various treatment options for those who suffer from hyperopia but the most common ones include optical correction, vision therapy, pharmaceutical therapy and refractive surgery.
Optical correction is usually the first choice of treatment for most cases of hyperopia and in most cases it involves spectacles. The spectacles come equipped with spherocylindrical lenses or plus-power spherical lenses which are very efficient in shifting the focus of light from behind the eye to a certain point on the retina. There are a large number of patients who experience difficulties in tolerating the prescribed correction spectacles and there are also those which do not tolerate the full correction. Children usually find it much easier to adapt to the tolerance of full optional correction. Those who experience troubles with hyperopic correction usually tend to wear the spectacles only for near viewing. The lenses prescribed for the correction of hyperopia may be multifocal or single vision, depending on the individual needs of the patient. In recent times, the use of aspheric lens designs and high index materials have greatly decreased the weight and thickness of lenses as well as their wearability. An alternative for all those who do not want or cannot wear spectacles are rigid or soft contact lenses. Prescribed contact lenses may come in the form of monovision contact lenses and multifocal contact lenses. The big problem with contact lenses is that they are usually much more expensive than spectacles and they are also associated with much more care and responsibilities. Additional trouble with contact lenses is that they may lead to the development of certain other complications such as infections, mechanical irritations and corneal hypoxia.
Vision therapy is commonly used in the cases which require remedying of the accommodative dysfunction. Certain patients who experience troubles tolerating the correction spectacles may be prescribed with a type of medication called miotics. These anticholinesterase agents usually include echothiophate iodide and diisopropylfluorophosphate but their use in largely limited because they may trigger some serious side effects. Certain modifications of the patient’s habits and environment may alleviate the symptoms of the condition but they unfortunately cannot reduce the level of hyperopia. These modifications commonly include ergonomic conditions at the computer terminal, optimal visual hygiene, decreasing temporal demands, use of better quality printed material, reducing glare and improving the lighting conditions. There are also certain refractive surgery techniques which can be of great help to those who suffer from hyperopia. The most commonly used ones include clear lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation, excimer laser, spiral hexagonal keratotomy, automated lamellar keratoplaty and laser thermal keratoplasty. Lower ranges of hyperopia are commonly a safe correction option, but there are no long turn outcomes established yet.
Good news for everyone who suffers from hyperopia is that this medical condition cannot be considered as a progressive one, so the general prognosis for all those who are affected by it is excellent. Proper correction always provides the patient with comfortable and clean single binocular vision. The followup is sometimes required in a rather intensive form. There are also a large number of people who suffer from a pathologic type of hyperopia. These people need certain treatment methods for all the underlying conditions associated with hyperopia and they need to refer to eye care providers for special services. It is also very important to stress out that all those who suffer from persistent symptoms of hyperopia require additional followup care so that all their medical problems can be remediated properly.