Pregnant women must be under constant supervision of the health care practitioner. Apart from routine tests, blood pressure has to be measured regularly as well. This is done so the possible pregnancy induced hypertension may be discovered on time. This condition is serious and may even lead to severe complications. The condition features with high blood pressure in women who have not had increased blood pressure prior the pregnancy. In the United States two types of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and eclampsia, represent the principal cause of death for both mother and a child. The cause of the condition has not been established yet. On the other hand there are risk factors which may induce the state. These include the history of diabetes and high blood pressure prior the pregnancy, the first pregnancy before the age of 20 or after the age of 35. Twins and triplets may contribute to the condition as well.
Gestation hypertension, preeclampsia and eclampsia are three types of pregnancy-induced hypertension. The first one occurs in the second half of the pregnancy with the digits above 140/90mmHg. There are no other signs and symptoms. Preeclampsia is more serious as the blood pressure tends to be higher than 140/90mmHg during the last 20 weeks of the pregnancy and the condition is accompanied by the presence of proteins in the urine. Eclampsia is most dangerous as it leads to convulsions and coma.
The complications of all these states include swelling and weight gain. The mother suffers from headache and may fell nausea. The blood vessels of lungs are more permeable which may result in breathing difficulties and shortness of breath. The liver may be damaged due to hiperpermeability of blood vessels as well. Mother loses proteins in urine which results in edema. Baby can be affected by intrauterine growth restriction.
More severe complications include loss of sight, rupture of liver and kidney failure. During the pregnancy increased blood pressure may be the cause of placental abruption. This means that placenta is separating from the uterus. Premature labor is another serious complication. Swelling of the brain, convulsions and coma may leave irreversible damage onto the mother's health. This means that even after the baby is born the damage to the organs may stay permanent. In rare cases HELLP syndrome develops. If it occurs the red blood cells get destroyed and the blood cannot coagulate properly.
The doctor is due to monitor the pressure and to administer certain medications which are allowed in pregnancy to regulate hypertension. Bed rest is always advised. The best cure is delivery but it has to be conduct when the time comes.