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There are a lot of people all over the world who suffer from chronic kidney disease. This particular condition is associated with a heightened risk of cardiovascular disease and chronic renal failure. People should know that there are several stages of chronic kidney disease. Stage I of chronic kidney disease is kidney damage with either normal or slightly increased GFR. A mild reduction of GFR is considered to be stage II. When there is a moderate reduction of GFR, a person is considered to be in stage III of chronic kidney disease. Stage IV is connected with a severe reduction of GFR and stage V is considered to be kidney failure. People should know that GFR is kidney glomerular filtration rate.

Apart from some underlying disease and glomerular hypertension, there are several other causes that may lead to progressive renal injury. These causes are systemic hypertension, acute injuries from nephrotoxins or decreased perfusion, proteinuria, increased renal ammoniagenesis with interstitial injury, hyperlipidemia, decreased levels of nitrous oxide and smoking.

Epidemiology

Frequency in the United States

Nowadays, there are more cases of chronic kidney failure than there were in the past. Many of these cases do not have a good outcome. Of all the causes of death in the United States, kidney failure is in the 9th place. According to certain researches, the prevalence of chronic renal failure has increased for 104% in the years between 1990 and 2001. The percentage for chronic kidney disease is even higher.

At this moment, there are millions of people in the United States who suffer from chronic kidney disease. The health providers are looking for ways to lessen the risks of this disease and decrease the rate of mortality. This is why it is important to reduce renal failure but for that to be done, more efforts from the public are needed.
 
International

All over the world, the incidence rates of end-stage renal disease have increased since 1989. Japan is in the second place, behind the United States.

Mortality

There are a lot of death cases caused by chronic kidney disease. Every person is endangered but people who suffer from diabetes are at higher risk and so are those with a cardiovascular disease. People older than 65 and suffering from end stage renal disease have a 6 times greater chance of dying than general population.

When race is consider, black people are suffering from end stage renal disease than the white ones, according to certain studies. This disease can affect both sexes but males are the ones who had suffered more according to certain researches. There is also no particular age at which people will get this disease. However, it is more common with the elderly people.

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